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Good planning and design practice involves identifying project functional and operational goals and needs during the programming phase. It is often helpful to prioritize goals and needs, and to carefully distinguish needs from wish list items. Many public sector projects have standardized processes with milestone reviews occurring at programming, schematic design, design development, and construction document phases. Updating the cost estimate throughout the design process and at each milestone helps avoid costly surprises late in the design phase.
It is much easier to make changes to a project in order to align with the budget early in the design process rather than later.
Design-Build: Planning Through Development
Cost-cutting, or value engineering , late in the game often sacrifices quality or performance. The designer is afforded a much better opportunity to address cost and budget alignment holistically without sacrificing functional priorities if cost concerns are identified early in the process. For example, the insulative value of a building envelope affects the sizing of the HVAC system. Downgrading the building envelope to save cost after the building has already been designed could result in an HVAC system that is improperly sized to maintain thermal comfort levels, or an HVAC system that needs to run harder than it was designed for, thus reducing the system lifespan and driving up building operation costs.
Key to improving the facility planning, design, and delivery process is continual improvement of team performance through learning from and avoiding repeated design errors, omissions, or flaws in project execution. Design of facilities that meet or exceed the functional expectations of owners and facility managers will require the application of these principles as well as thorough understanding of historical precedent and knowledge of current design practices for the building type. Third component named construction and operation explains 6.
Moving beyond design, BIM models can facilitate materials purchasing, the bidding process, and the construction stage of the project. BIM is the future of construction and long-term facility management, where BIM controls time and operation and maintenance costs.
It optimizes facility management and maintenance strategy Ashcraft, ; Eastman et al. It is very important function of BIM for professionals in the construction industry. This is in line with Eastman et al.
Nassar found that BIM will increase the precision and accuracy of the quantity aspect of the estimate. Cost estimating, 5D in BIM supports the entire lifecycle of a facility from the cradle to the grave. By using a building information model instead of drawings, the takeoffs, counts, and measurements can be generated directly from the underlying model.
Therefore the information is always consistent with the design. And when a change is made in the design a smaller window size, for example , the change automatically ripples to all related construction documentation and schedules, as well as all the takeoffs, counts, and measurements that are used by the estimator.
Cost estimating, 5D via BIM can save time, cost, and reduces the potential for human error. This function was mentioned in the literature review as an important function of BIM according to the studies of Ashcraft , Eastman et al. BIM model that created by designers and updated throughout the construction phase, can have the capacity to become an "as built" model, which also can be delivered to the owner or facility manager.
It serves as a shared knowledge resource for information about a facility forming a reliable basis for decisions regarding the operation and the maintenance of the building. The findings of this paper indicated that BIM functions are significantly needed and important for professionals in the construction industry in Gaza Strip. The results obtained from factor analysis have clustered BIM functions in three components, which are: 1 Data management and utilization in planning; operation and maintenance; 2 Visualized design and analysis; and 3 Construction and operation.
Education and training are strongly recommended to increase BIM awareness and interest among architects and engineers. Universities and Engineers Association are recommended to promote the adoption of BIM by providing technical training courses and workshops in BIM functions and its application in the construction industry.
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Academic institutions and universities have to take the initiative to facilitate modern and innovative methods to engage BIM in the construction industry and suggest BIM courses for students. Alumni Association of engineering faculties should take an active part in BIM awareness and shed light on the field of BIM and the possibility of its application in the Palestinian construction industry.
The relationship between academia and professionals in the construction industry should be activated through the establishment of dialogue, which encouraged the exchange of knowledge, experiences and ideas. Implementing BIM approach should be slow and steady to avoid negative impacts to already existing workflow processes.
In other words, change should be gradual and steady by adopting BIM on a project- by-project basis as an example, but not as a limitation. Thus, it would be easier breaking down any psychological, social, and financial barriers for BIM adoption. Aibinu A. Ashcraft H. Construction Lawyer, Vol. Azhar S.dingteterecge.gq
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Baldwin M. BIM Journal, Vol. Becerik-Gerber B. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, Vol. Cheng J. Waste Management, Vol: 33 : No.
Dillman D. Doloi H. Construction Management and Economics, Vol. Dzambazova T. Indianapolis, Indiana: Wiley Publishing, Inc. Eastman C. Field A. Garson G. Gray M. Hardy M. Holness G. Joannides M. Jung Y. Automation in Construction, Vol. Kaiser H.
Psychometrika, Vol. Kolpakov A. Larose D.
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Lavrakas P. Lee S. Journal of Management in Engineering, Vol. Liu Y. Ergonomics, Vol. Lorch R. Mandhar M. McGraw-Hill Construction , Building information modeling: transforming design and construction to achieve greater industry productivity; smart market report. New York: McGraw-Hill.